kingship in the old testament

The Messiah’s Sonship with God is thus related to His Messiahship. In short, Adam is to rule over the whole world as a subordinate king underneath God, the true king over all. He is to spread God’s own dominion outside the boundaries of the ordered garden of Eden so that it branches out to the farthest reaches of creation. All of this suggests, very clearly, that Israel recognized Yahweh as her Great King long before kingship was established in Jerusalem. The aim of this paper is to explore the concept of kingship in the Ancient Near Eastern civilizations, understand the implications of the office and the function of kings before to see its application to the time of the Old Testament world. Then a long succession of kings in both Israel (nineteen kings) and Judah (nineteen kings, one queen) ran from 931 b.c. While it is true that God alone is the ultimate king of Israel and over all of creation, human kings have a key role to play in God’s kingdom. The Lord, however, told Samuel to give them a different sort of king. He had not only delivered Israel from bondage in Egypt and taken them to himself to be a "kingdom of priests" ( Exod 19:6 ), but he was sovereign beyond Israel's borders as the ruler over all of nature and history. Even among the kings of Judah, only Hezekiah and Josiah receive unqualified approval ( 2 Kings 18:3-7 ; 22:2 ). Despite this fact, the concept of God’s kingship is present throughout the Old Testament and is vital if we are going to make sense of Jesus’ preaching about the kingdom of God. Article Images Copyright © 2020 Getty Images unless otherwise indicated. In your hand are power and might, so that none is able to withstand you.” Or consider King Hezekiah’s exultation in Isaiah 37:16: “O Lord of hosts, God of Israel, enthroned above the cherubim, you are the God, you alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth; you have made heaven and earth.” See also Psalms 93:1-2; 95:3-6; 96:10; 104; 136:1-9. Stevens teaches biblical studies at Lutheran Theological Seminary in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Instead, he rebels against his own sovereign, the Lord God almighty. His rise to power was ordained by God, and his life showed lots of promise during the early years of his rule as king. It also offers a nuanced understanding of how New Testament authors make use of Old Testament messianic texts in explaining who Jesus is and what he came to do. Bibliography F. F. Bruce, New Testament Development of Old Testament Themes;G. Van Groningen, Messianic Revelation in the Old Testament; D. M. Howard, Jr., TrinityJ9NS (1988): 19-35; idem, WTJ 52 (1990):101-15; G. E. Mendenhall, Int 29/2(1975):155-70; J. J. M. Roberts, Ancient Israelite Religion: Essays in Honor of Frank Moor Cross, pp. 377-96. 19:16) is an essential aspect of the gospel we believe. 56:7) Second, in verses 12-13 Jesus acts out another Old Testament text. 1–24) God's kingship, however, contrasts with that of Israel's rulers in that God's rule is not limited to the nation of Israel. of Then Samuel sent all the people away, each to his home. 13, 15). In Jesus Christ, the God-man, human and divine kingship are united in one person. until 721 b.c. The kingdom extended in the north as far as Bethel, while in the south it … The Rights and Duties of Kingship in Israel by Marvin A. Sweeney The kings of Israel and Judah were believed to serve as Yhwh ’s agents to rule the nation. show that in the Sinai covenant Yahweh assumes the role of the Great King, and Israel, that of his vassal. The issue of God's attitude toward the human institution of kingship in Israel is one concerning which the biblical texts appear --on the surface--to be ambiguous. In short, I argue that the Old Testament history shows that war was part of God’s gift of the land to Israel. The Kingship of David (2 Sam. Jacob said that royalty would arise from the tribe of Judah ( Gen 49:10 ). Abraham was told that "kings" would arise among his descendants ( Gen17:6 ). in the south. This description was a supplement to the "law of the king" given by Moses ( Deut 17:14-20 ).Samuel then inaugurated the reign of Saul, Israel's first king, in the context of a renewal of the covenant with Yahweh ( 1 Sam11:14-12:25 ). Adam, of course, fails to take dominion over the earth. Salem Media Group. This request betrayed their rejection of the kingship of Yahweh ( 1 Sam 8:7 ; 10:19 ; 12:12 ) and denial of the covenant. Parallels in literary structure between the Sinai covenant and certain international treaties drawn up by the kings of the Hittite Empire in the fourteenth century b.c. Understanding kingship is essential when reading the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament. in all its fullness to as many people as possible. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father David, and he will reign overthe house of Jacob forever; his kingdom will never end" ( Luke 1:32-33 ).Jesus laid claim to fulfillment of the messianic prophecies of the Old Testament when at his trial before the Sanhedrin he was asked by the high priest whether he was the Messiah. Although this book is a loose sequel to her previous book, Theological Themes of the Old Testament, it can be read as a standalone book (p. x), as it is in this review. In Jesus the duality of sovereigns present in the Old Testament period is eliminated. As Psalm 10:16 says: “The LORD is king forever and ever; the nations perish from his land.” Or as King Jehoshaphat confesses in 2 Chronicles 20:6: “O Lord, God of our fathers, are you not God in heaven? It says he "entered the temple and drove out all those who were buying and selling in the temple, and overturned the tables of the money changers and the seats of those who were selling doves." What conditions gave rise to the idea of the coming of a future messianic king who would someday establish peace and justice in all the earth? He disobeyed the word of the Lord and rebelled against the Lord (1 Sam. For usage information, please read the Baker Book House Copyright Statement. Much of 1-2 Samuel, 1-2 Kings, and 1-2 Chronicles describes matters pertaining to the lives and reigns of these kings. Rather than presenting the kings as monsters—with the occasional angelic ruler—this study seeks a more nuanced version of kingship. He wrote them on a scroll, which he placed in the presence of the Lord. The Next 500 Years: 2017 National Conference, The Battle for the Beginning: Creation, Evolution and the Bible, God in Our Midst: The Tabernacle and Our Relationship with God, Naming Ligonier the Beneficiary of a Bank or Investment Account, Gifts That Provide Income and Tax Benefits, The Kingdom of God in the Old Testament: From Abraham to Israel, The Kingdom of God in the Old Testament: The Prophetic Hope, The Kingdom of God in the Old Testament: Kingship and Creation. This failure of the kings of both Israel and Judah to live up to the covenantal ideal provided the backdrop as Israel's prophets began to speak of a future king who would be a worthy occupant of the throne of David. In Psalm 2, this Sonship is related strongly to the Messiah’s Kingship. Josiah was the last king before the exile.He destroyed all pagan idols and altars and insisted his people worship the one God. The Old Testament spells this out in two main ways. What was the role of the human king in ancient Israel, and to what extent was this role realized? You rule over all the kingdoms of the nations. He was always obligated to submit to the law of Israel's (and his) Great King, Yahweh ( Deut 17:18-20 ; 1 Sam 12:14 ) as well as to the word of the prophet ( 1 Sam 12:23 ; 13:13 ; 1 Samuel 15:11 1 Samuel 15:23 ; 2 Sam 12:7-13 ). In fact, significant sections of the writings of the prophets and poets also involve the actions of the various kings of Israel and Judah. Sacral Kingship―The Old Testament Background* Arthur E. Cundall [p.31] The subject of Divine or Sacral Kingship has been a dominant one in Old Testament studies during the past four decades. Contrary to the idea of certain scholars (e.g., Vatke, Gressmann, von Rad), the Old Testament does not suggest that the idea of the kingship of Yahweh was a projection derived from the human institution. While he is king over his people in a special sense, by virtue of his covenantal relationship to them, his kingship is at the same time universal, extending to all nations and peoples and even the natural environment. is in Scripture very generally used to denote one invested with authority, whether extensive or limited. 8-12). It is part of my biblical-theological analysis of the theology of War in the Bible.You can find my initial summary of the OT theology of war here.. 2 Timothy 2:12. He was not autonomous. To do this also denies the close relationship that exists between the establishment of the Sinai covenant and the acknowledgment of Yahweh's kingship over Israel. The use of "king" and "kingship" however, is not limited to the occupants of the thrones in Samaria and Jerusalem. Copyright © 2020, Bible Study Tools. Because of this the Lord rejected him from being king ( 1 Sam 15:23 ), and sent Samuel to annoint David in his place (1 Sam. The … In fact, God built human kingship into creation itself. This is a list of every battle in the OT. Late in his reign he sinned again in taking the census of his fighting men, but again he sought theLord's forgiveness ( 2Sam 24 ). This juxtaposition of divine and human kingship in the Old Testament period presented ancient Israel with a duality of sovereigns. First, God is king over all of creation. Second, the Old Testament portrays God as king over Israel in a special way. Yet in the course of time Israel also had her own human kings, the rulers in Jerusalem or Samaria who exercised their royal power to govern the nation. Nonetheless, God does not abandon His intention to rule over the earth through a human king. The Greek word translated "Christ" in our English versions of the Bible is a translation of the Hebrew term for Messiah (the anointed one). In the New Testament the kingship theme is carried forward and its ambiguities resolved. On the one hand Samuel said that Israel had sinned in asking for a king ( 1 Sam 12:17-20 ).On the other hand the Lord told Samuel to give the people a king ( 1 Samuel 8:7 1 Samuel 8:2 1 Samuel 8:22 ).Later, after Saul was chosen by lot, Samuel said, "Do you see the man the Lord has chosen?" In this post we will examine the kingdom of God at creation, namely in the commission God gives to Adam to rule over the earth. Quick Overview of 1 Kings. 16). In general, the words melek [J,l,m] (Heb. They wanted a king to fight their battles and give them a symbol of national unity. All of the kings of the north are said to have"done evil in the eyes of the Lord" because they continued the worship of the golden calves in Bethel and Dan that had been begun by the northern kingdom's first king, Jeroboam 1 ( 1Kings 12:26-33 ). The tension in these chapters is evident. Jesus Declares His Kingship by Cleansing the Temple (Isa. Please enter your email address associated with your Salem All-Pass account, then click Continue. All rights reserved. In the words of the angel who spoke to Mary: "He will be great and will be called the Son of the Mos tHigh. The vast majority of uses involve human kings and kingdoms. God had even provided for it in antecedent revelation. We'll send you an email with steps on how to reset your password. David’s Successors: Kingship in the Old Testamentargues for a new reading of kingship in the Old Testament. The longest reigning king of the Kingdom of Israel was Jeroboam II, who ruled for 41 years.The shortest was Zimri, who ruled only 7 days.In the Kingdom of Judah, King Manasseh ruled the longest with 55 years. This page is also available in: हिन्दी (Hindi) King Solomon was the third and last king of the United Kingdom of Israel. Second, the Old Testament portrays God as king over Israel in a special way. Addressing a topic of perennial interest and foundational significance, this book explores what the Old Testament actually says about the Messiah, divine kingship, and the kingdom of God. After warning them about what it would be like to have a king like the nations ( 1 Sam 8:11-18 )Samuel defined how kingship was to function in Israel ( 1 Sam 10:25 ). Proud member Simply put, God is the sovereign ruler of the universe. The book is aimed at laypeople (church groups, college classrooms, seminary courses; p. Your gift enables our worldwide outreach. HISTORY OF THE ISRAELITE KINGDOMS So it is clear that in God's purpose it was right and proper for Israel to have a king. He is given control over all plant life (1:29) and again over every animal on the earth (1:30). "If we patiently endure pain, we shall also share His Kingship; "If we disown Him, He … For the most part the history of the kings of Israel and Judah is a history of failure to live up to the covenantal ideal. Dr. Ben C. Dunson is professor of New Testament at Reformation Bible College. The prophets (before, during, and after the exile), however, make it clear that even with the exile God would not, and did not, abandon His intention to … The question of the Old Testament's apparently ambivalent attitude toward the institution of the monarchy is rooted in the description of the rise of kingship in Israel (1 Sam. The concept originated in prehistoric times, but it continues to exert a recognizable influence in the modern world. Jehoahaz and Jehoiachin ruled the shortest with 3 months both. In Genesis 1-2 Adam is clearly portrayed as a king. It is important to understand the way in which the Old Testament presents the relationship between divine and human kingship. The issue here is not whether kingship in itself was right or wrong for Israel. Jesus’ reign as ‘King of kings and Lord of lords’ (Rev. Forms of this root occur 3,154 times in the Hebrew Bible. – –1-11 – –The peaceful and prosperous reign of King Solomon, the idolatry of King Solomon, the death of King Solomon.– – 12-22 – – The division of the people of Israel into two kingdoms, The Kingdom of Judah and the Kingdom of Israel. Answer: There are three main “offices” spoken of in the Old Testament—prophet, priest, and king. Arthur E. Cundall, “Sacral Kingship―The Old Testament Background,” Vox Evangelica 6 (1969): 31-41. Category: Articles. Saul had good favor with God and the people of Israel when he obeyed the Lord. The elders of Israel asked Samuel to give them a "king like the nations"around them ( 1 Sam8:20a ). This duality of sovereigns was the source of one of the major theological problems in the Old Testament period. As Samuel says in 1 Sam 12:12-13: “The Lord sent Jerubbaal and Barak and Jephthah and Samuel and delivered you out of the hand of your enemies on every side, and you lived in safety. Simply put, God is the sovereign ruler of the universe. In the next post we will look at how God’s kingdom develops in the Old Testament, beginning with Abraham, moving on to kingship in Israel, and ending with the exile of the northern and southern kingdoms. This is seen most clearly in the commission that God gives to Adam in Genesis 1:26-30 (and repeated in Gen 2:15-17): Kingship is at the heart of the commission that God gives to Adam: he is granted dominion over all animal life on the earth (1:26); he is told to have many children in order to subdue the earth and take dominion over it (1:28). On the one hand, God blessed the monarchy, and he even chose a kingly line from which to ap- pear in human form. Jesus replied, "I am, and you will see the Son of Man sitting at the rights hand of the Mighty One and coming with the clouds of heaven" ( Mark 14:62 ). Donate Now. Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology, California - Do Not Sell My Personal Information. king) designate the person who holds supreme authority over a nation or city. And when you saw that Nahash the king of the Ammonites came against you, you said to me, ‘No, but a king shall reign over us,’ when the Lord your God was your king.” Israel’s desire for a powerful earthly king was driven by fear and earthly-mindedness (see 1 Sam 8:4-9). concept of kingship and kingdom throughout the OT. Saul of the Old Testament, King. https://www.insight.org/resources/bible/the-historical-books/first-kings King Saul was Israel’s first king and monarch. 40:9,10). Apr 18, 2015 In theOld Testament the most numerous references to "king" and "kingship"occur in the narratives dealing with the periods of the united and divided kingdoms of ancient Israel. He reigned for 40 years (970 – 931 BCE) after King Saul and King David (1 kings11:42). This approach, however, does violence to the many positive biblical statements concerning God's design for the institution of kingship in the context of this sovereign plan for the redemption of his people, and ultimately for the uNIVersal triumph of peace and justice on the earth. At issue was the kind of kingship Israel desired, and her reasons for wanting a king. This, however, does not mean that reference to kingship is limited to narrative sections of the Old Testament. After Solomon's death the kingdom divided into northern (Israel) and southern (Judah) segments. Athaliah was the only woman who reigned the southern kingdom.She got her power by killing all of the members of the … King. Fix that problem! Two respected Old Testament scholars offer a fresh, comprehensive treatment of the messiah theme throughout the entire Old Testament and examine its relevance for New Testament interpretation. God was the great King who ruled the universe as well as his people, Israel. The Kings of Judah 1 Kings 12:17 - But [as for] the children of Israel which dwelt in the cities of Judah, Rehoboam reigned over them. But more important, there is a strong and conspicuous emphasis on the kingship of God, the "Great King" who rules over his people ( Exod 15:18 ; Deut 33:5 ; 1 Sam 8:7 ; 12:12 ; 1 Chron 17:14 ; 28:5 ; Psalm 114:2 ). While it was not wrong for Israel to desire a king (more on this below), the reason driving Israel’s request was indeed sinful. The Kingship of David (2 Sam. There are no records of his life or reign outside the Bible — odd, if he was that important. Unfortunately Saul fell far short of living up to the requirements of his office. Kingship in Israel and other ancient Near Eastern societies is a major focus of modern scholarship and has produced fascinating results. As the profile of this king slowly develops it is clear that he will come as the fulfillment of the promise of an eternal dynasty to David ( 2 Sam 7 ; 23:1-7 ; Psalm 89 ; 132:11-12 ; Isa 55:3-5 ). For these scholars the establishment of the monarchy represented a return to the social model of the old Bronze Age paganism of the Canaanites, and a rejection of religious foundations derived from the Mosaic formulations of the Sinai covenant. Saul, David, and Solomon were kings who ruled over a united Israelite kingdom. The Ligonier Ministries site requires Javascript, but you’ve got Javascript disabled. 11, 12), but in contrast to Saul when Nathan, the prophet, confronted him, he repented and sought the Lord's forgiveness ( 2 Sam 12:13 ; Psalm 51 ). Moses provided for the eventual rise of kingship in Israel when he gave the "law of the king" ( Deut17:14-20 ) as part of the renewal of the covenant in the Plains of Moab just beforeIsrael's entrance in the promised land. David is revered as the most powerful and important king of Israel during biblical times. He will not only be a descendant of David, but is also identified with deity ( Isa 7:14 ; 9:6-7 ; Jer 23:5-6 ; Ezek 36:24-28 ).During his reign wars will cease and peace and justice will be established in the earth ( Isa 2:1-5 ; 11:1-10 ; Amos 9:11-15 ).This future king came to be known as the "Messiah" (in Hebrew, "the anointed one") and longing for his appearance came to be known as messianic expectation. Sacred kingship, religious and political concept by which a ruler is seen as an incarnation, manifestation, mediator, or agent of the sacred or holy (the transcendent or supernatural realm). 1–24) Resources » Asbury Bible Commentary » Part II: The Old Testament » 1 AND 2 SAMUEL » Commentary » II. God’s people failed to rest in the fact that God was their king, and that He would protect His covenant people. from Ben Dunson In this sense, God reigns over His creation in and through Adam. king) and basileus [basileuv"](Gk. Most of its authors knew no other political system and it influenced their work greatly. Kingship in Israel was not unanticipated. David is thus termed a "man after God's own heart" ( 1 Sam 13:14 ; Acts 13:22 ), and the writer of Kings makes his reign the standard by which to assess the reigns of subsequent kings. Reference is also found to numerous foreign kings whose activities affected Israel in some way. in the north and 586b.c. This had enormous significance. David grievously sinned in the matter of Bathsheba (2 Sam. That just a few of the evil kings of Israel. To question this erodes the institutional basis of the messianic hope that arose in connection with the failure of Israel's kings to function as God had instructed. King, Kingship The terms "king" and "kingship" are common biblical words, occurring over 2, 500 times in the Old Testament and 275 times in the New Testament. In 1 Samuel 12 the prophet Samuel rebukes Israel for desiring a king that would be just like the greedy, self-serving kings of the nations surrounding Israel. But Old Testament Judaism did know that God had a Son, for both David and Solomon spoke of Him. In 1 Samuel 12 the prophet Samuel rebukes Israel for desiring a king that would be just like the greedy, self-serving kings of the nations surrounding Israel. There were thirty-one kings in Canaan ( Joshua 12:9 Joshua 12:24), whom Joshua subdued.Adonibezek subdued seventy kings ( Judges 1:7).In the New Testament the Roman emperor is spoken of as a king ( 1 Peter 2:13 1 Peter 2:17); and Herod Antipas, who was only a tetrarch, is also … This recognition has caused other contemporary scholars (Mendenhall, McKenzie) to suggest that the establishment of human kingship in Israel was a rebellion against divine rule and represented an alien paganizing development in the social structure of ancient Israel. Remember: Jesus simply announces that the kingdom is “at hand” (Matt 3:2), assuming that His hearers had some grasp of what He meant, even if He knew that they did not fully understand Him. Jesus fulfills all three of these roles. Soggin’s table in Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament (TLOT) provides the statistics for the verb (347x) as well as the cognate nouns “king” 9 Ibid., 224. Chronology of the Old Testament Kings The following table provides a harmony of the chronologies of the kings of Israel and Judah following the kingdom dividing after Solomon’s death. It is not warranted to assert, as some have, that the title of king was not ascribed to Yahweh prior to the time of the Israelite monarchy. Kingship was subordinated to covenant.Israel's king was to be a covenantal king. In a previous post I mentioned that the exact phrase “kingdom of God” does not show up in the Old Testament (although “kingdom of the Lord” does appear in 2 Chronicles 13:8; see also the talk of God’s kingdom in Daniel [for example, Dan 6:26]). David was an imperfect but true representative of the ideal of the covenantal king. He is the God who has come with might to reign for the Lord and satisfy the deepest needs and longings of his people (see Isa. What, then, does the Old Testament have to say about the kingdom of God? To do this requires the late dating of explicit statements of Yahweh's kingship in texts such as Exodus 15:18; Numbers 23:21; Deuteronomy33:5; Judges 8:23; and 1 Samuel 8:7; 10:19; 12:12. This table is adapted from Edwin R. Thiele’s work in The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings with some modifications. So I landed in the middle of the Kings of the Divided Kingdom and got the title: “5 Good Kings and 33 Bad kings in 208 years.” Several on the campaign asked that I post my notes - so here you go: I doubt any (many) of you know these names: Elah, Zimri, Tibni, Ahizah, Athaliah, Shallum. The Southern Kingdom consisted of 2 tribes (Judah and Benjamin). How was Israel to understand the relationship between their obligation to Yahweh, the divine King, on the one hand, and their obligation to the human king on the other? Jesus is the one who fulfilled the royal messianic promises of the Old Testament. He is said to have begun his career playing the lute in the court of King Saul but … Josiah was 8 years old when he became king, and he reigned for 37 years. The mission, passion and purpose of Ligonier Ministries is to proclaim the holiness of God HCSB, ISV, NET, LEB Solomon was born in Jerusalem, the second born child of David and his wife Bathsheba, widow of Uriah the Hittite. The most important teaching on the kingdom in the Old Testament, however, is that God is king, so we must turn to this idea first. Samuel proclaimed to the people the rights of kingship. Its ambiguities resolved reset your password a recognizable influence in the Mysterious Numbers of the nations and other Near. Worship the one God extensive or limited how to reset your password right and proper Israel! Favor with God is king over Israel in a special way 22:2 ) it is important to understand the in! The requirements of his life or reign outside the Bible — odd, if he that! 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