Personal freedoms -- such as the freedom of expression and freedom of assembly -- have been placed as the limit against which security exists. As such, if we want to observe how people have come to conceive and frame both terrorism and terrorists, the poststructuralist can analyse media accounts in order to analyse the discursive construction of these political actors and associated terrorist events. Therefore, by design, poststructuralism conflicts with the bulk of other IR theories as it finds them unable (or unwilling) to fully account for the true diversity of international relations. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. The importance of poststructuralism is to highlight existing regimes of truth and show that conventional ways of thinking and analysis in international relations are unable to point out how certain other possibilities are excluded by these discourses from the very start. Donations are voluntary and not required to download the e-book - your link to download is below. If we look to the work of one of the leading scholars of poststructuralism, Michel Foucault, then the concepts of elites, discourses and the power of language and binary oppositions all tie together to create what he labels a 'regime of truth'. Butler (2003) builds upon this idea of discourses excluding other possibilities by proposing that certain lives, in certain conflicts or terrorist atrocities, are deemed as more 'grievable' than others. and via a free PDF download. Poststructuralists argue that ‘knowledge’ comes to be accepted as such due to the power and prominence of certain actors in society known as ‘elites’, who then impose it upon others. International Relations. For example, despite the warmongering in the wake of 9/11, there were large-scale anti-war protests by members of the public across many nations. If we look to the aftermath of the events of 11 September 2001 (commonly known as 9/11) we can see these categories of differentiation and their influence begin to manifest themselves. In the field of International Relations (IR) this can cover diplomacy, negotiation and the difference between war and peace. Poststructuralism doubts the possibility of attaining universal laws or truths as there is no world that exists independently of our own interpretations. From this we must recognise that elite and everyday discourses co-exist and, although one assumes a dominant position, there are still many other competing discourses at play that shape international relations and have the potential to contribute to under- standings commonly seen as 'knowledge' and 'truth'. This renders poststructuralism openly critical of any theory that claims to be able to identify objective fact -- as truth and knowledge are subjective entities that are produced rather than discovered. In general, post-structuralism emphasizes the importance of language in structuring our experience of the world - meanings are not inherent in the thing or action itself but are created by words and their relationship to other words. The strength of dominant discourses lies in their ability to shut out other options or opinions to the extent that thinking outside the realms set by the discourse is seen as irrational. All Rights Reserved | Site by Rootsy. Post-structuralism differs from most other approaches to international politics because it does not see itself as a theory, school or paradigm which produces a single account of the subject matter. Therefore, by design, poststructuralism conflicts with the bulk of other IR theories as it finds them unable (or unwilling) to fully account for the true diversity of international relations. amount, in any currency, is appreciated. These ideas and concepts have been used to produce new knowledge about world politics. In practice, the dominant discourse of securing the state often works to silence any concerns about enhanced state power. support open access publishing. ALTERNATIVES TURKISH JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS www.alternetivesjournal.net Poststructuralism and the Analysis of International Relations Yusuf Sayin *, Davut Ates ââââ Abstract: Postmodernism and poststructuralism move from the phrase that history is narrative and narratives are texts or meaning is encoded in language. Post-structuralism is the literary and philosophical work that both builds upon and rejects ideas within structuralism, the intellectual project that preceded it. BUSINESS | C. Fynsk, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. Poststructuralists always call into question how certain accepted 'facts' and 'beliefs' actually work to reinforce the dominance and power of â¦ The pervasion of this discourse also served to conflate the motivations and acts of these terrorists with the construction of a wider Muslim and Arab society. For poststructuralists, language is one of the most crucial elements for the creation and perpetuation of a dominant discourse. This messy entanglement of the everyday and the elite shows that a plethora of discourses can coexist and craft the view of international relations that we are offered. Aishling Mc Morrow is a Lecturer in International Relations at Queen's University Belfast, UK. Introducing Poststructuralism in International Relations Theory Written by Aishling Mc Morrow whereby if a state wishes to be secure then the public must endure a reduction in personal freedoms. The words we speak, the phrases we use, according to Post-structuralism, are never totally objective. Heydebrand, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. Critical theory seeks to provide analyses that further progressive and egalitarian social goal, structuralism also uses critical theory. To underscore this link to death and destruction, the media narrative also consistently linked both the acts and actors of 9/11 to images and metaphors of pestilence and disease. Full references for citations can be found in the PDF version, linked at the top of this page. Personal freedoms â such as the freedom of expression and freedom of assembly â have been placed as the limit against which security exists. Along with these fatalities, as the media began to report on the abuses that were carried out, the regime of truth that had been centred on the foreign policy directives of the Bush presidency started to falter. EDUCATION | One of the most common binary oppositions is to establish different groups or countries in terms of ‘them’ versus ‘us’. An example of this can be found in the security versus liberty debate. Yet, similar attacks in Beirut and Nigeria in November 2015 and Baghdad in July 2016 (to name but a few) went largely unnoticed and were silenced within regimes of truth that mourned for, or favoured, the ‘innocent’ Western victim. Click Here: International Relations Theory (E-IR Foundations) Moreover, the emotions that the narratives of these actions evoked related back to feelings of love, empathy and altruism that the media utilised to engender further cohesion in society against the ‘other’ of the terrorist. It certainly prevented the chance of dealing with these attacks through diplomacy, as the overarching discourse stated that these terrorists merely wanted to destroy the world before them. In the study of international relations, discourse analysis is associated with post-structuralism, a theoretical approach that shares realismâs concern with states and power, but differs from realismâs assumption that states are driven by self-interest. This is an excerpt from International Relations Theory an E-IR Foundations beginner’s textbook. DANA Multitasker 1,298 views. Within the regime of truth of the War on Terror, then, this emotive discourse was extended to every Muslim, every Arab, and, eventually, every non-Westerner. For instance, they include government ministers who decide policy focus and direction for a state, business leaders who leverage vast financial resources to shape market direction, and media outlets that decide how a person is portrayed while reporting a story. While the presentation of terrorists as irrational and evil has found solid ground and the dominant perceptions of terrorism and terrorists are of an illogical and apolitical act and actor, there always will be deviation from this conceptualisation. Although great emphasis and focus is placed upon the authority of the elite actors to decide what we count as valid knowledge and assumptions within society, poststructuralism asserts that the way in which this power is achieved is through the manipulation of discourse. Abstract: The paper examined Post Structuralism within the context of International Relations, despite the fact that, post structuralism actually give a number of general and constructive puzzle which can be administer in other to approach the study of international politics in a different directions. 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